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What Is Choice Blindness? Definition and Examples

Choice blindness is a psychological phenomenon in which people fail to notice a mismatch between their intended choice and the choice presented to them. In other words, it is a surprising tendency to be unaware that our choices and preferences have been changed or manipulated after we’ve already made a choice.

This tendency suggests that even if we don’t get the thing we actually chose, there are many times we won’t even notice. For example, if you order something at a restaurant and get something slightly different, you might not notice the discrepancy.

Definition of Choice Blindness

One definition suggests that:

“Choice blindness happens when people fail to notice mismatches between their intentions and the consequences of decisions” (Lachaud, Jacquet, & Baratgin, 2022).

Choice blindness is a form of introspection illusion. Essentially, this illusion suggests that we have direct insight into the origins of our mental states. We treat our own introspections as absolute truth while also discounting other people’s introspections as mistaken or unreliable.

So when you order a turkey sandwich at your local delicatessen but get a ham sandwich instead, you’ll either not notice the mistake or invent reasons why the ham sandwich was what you actually wanted in the first place.

Choice blindness underscores how factors like unconscious decision-making, memory distortions, and perceptual errors affect our decision-making. It also provides insight into our own self-awareness regarding the choices that we make.

The Psychology of Choice

The psychology of choice seeks to understand how people make decisions when asked to choose between two or more options. While we might like to think that each decision is something carefully made using rationality and logic, there are actually a whole host of influences that play a role, many of which can be quite irrational.

Conscious influences play a part, but so can unconscious forces. Our memories, past experiences, and cognitive biases also affect our choices.

Even subtle factors like priming can impact the decisions we make. Priming happens when exposure to one stimulus influences how we respond to a subsequent stimulus.

Biases also affect decisions. Some common types of bias that impact choices include the anchoring bias, confirmation bias, and ingroup bias.

Even the number of options we have to choose from can affect our decision. To few choices means we might miss out on good options, but too many choices can leave us feeling overwhelmed and indecisive.

Research on Choice Blindness

The experiments on choice blindness, often associated with the work of researchers Johansson, Hall, Sikstrom, and Olsson, involve a set of studies designed to investigate the phenomenon and its underlying mechanisms. One notable experiment typically follows these key elements:

The Experiment

Participants are presented with a choice between two options. In one case, this involved choosing between two different female faces. After making their selection, the participants are then handed the chosen item, which is visually different from what they initially selected. For instance, if they chose face A, they might be given face B.

Manipulation and Misdirection

The critical aspect of the experiment involves introducing a form of misdirection or manipulation. Participants are engaged in a conversation or distraction immediately after making their choice, diverting their attention away from the actual switch of the chosen item.

The misdirection is crucial to ensure that participants remain unaware of the mismatch between their intended choice and the received item.

Revealing the Discrepancy

Following the distraction phase, participants are asked to explain or justify their choice. During this process, researchers reveal the switch by showing the participants what they actually received.

Surprisingly, many participants fail to notice the discrepancy and may offer explanations for a choice they did not make. In one study, just 13% of the participants actually noticed that the image they received did not match the one they had chosen.

Analysis and Implications

Researchers analyze the responses to understand the extent of choice blindness and the factors influencing it. The findings shed light on the malleability of our awareness regarding decision outcomes, emphasizing the role of cognitive processes, memory, and external influences.

The experiments not only provide empirical evidence for choice blindness but also offer insights into the limitations of introspection and self-awareness in understanding our own choices.

In other variations of the experiments, researchers have demonstrated they could produce the same effects with food and political candidates.

These experiments showcase how individuals can be blind to the discrepancies between their intended choices and the outcomes, illustrating the complexity of decision-making processes and the surprising gaps in our awareness.

Causes of Choice Blindness

Choice blindness is influenced by a number of causes. Decision-making is a complex process that involves numerous processes and has many influences. No wonder we aren’t always aware of all of the factors that play a role in affecting our choices. Some key causes include:

Cognitive Biases 

Cognitive biases are errors in thinking. Many different cognitive biases, such as confirmation bias and choice-supportive bias, can contribute to choice blindness. These biases shape our interpretation and memory of choices, leading individuals to overlook inconsistencies between their intended choices and the presented outcomes.


What we are paying attention to while choosing can also play a major role in choice blindness. If your attention is diverted by something else, you won’t analyze your choices as much. Because your attention is distracted, you’re less likely to notice if the option presented doesn’t match your original selection.

Memory Distortion

Memory is not a perfect record of our experiences. Choice blindness experiments reveal how memory distortion can occur. People often find ways to justify the mismatch, even inventing explanations for why they chose what they did. This memory distortion further obscures the awareness of the choice-outcome mismatch.

Perceptual Errors

Humans may experience perceptual errors in recognizing visual or sensory differences between the chosen and received items. The brain might fill in gaps or overlook inconsistencies, especially if the differences are subtle. This contributes to individuals failing to notice the mismatch between their intended choices and the presented outcomes.

Environmental Factors

External factors, including social pressure or the experimental context, can influence decision-making and contribute to choice blindness. People often align their explanations with social expectations or context cues, further obscuring their awareness of the actual outcomes.

Cognitive Dissonance

When faced with a choice-outcome discrepancy, individuals may experience cognitive dissonance, a psychological discomfort resulting from conflicting beliefs or attitudes. To resolve this discomfort, individuals might unconsciously alter their perception of the initial choice to align with the received outcome.

Examples of Choice Blindness

Choice blindness can manifest in various everyday situations, demonstrating how individuals may fail to recognize discrepancies between their intended choices and the outcomes. Here are some common examples:

Menu Choices

Imagine ordering a specific dish at a restaurant and receiving a visually similar but different item. If the waiter presents it confidently and you’re engaged in conversation, you may not immediately notice the switch. Later, when asked about your choice, you might explain the dish you thought you ordered.

Shopping Selections

When shopping, especially online, you may choose a particular product based on its features or appearance. However, due to packaging similarities or mislabeling, you might receive a different variant or brand.

Choice blindness may make you rationalize the received item as the one you initially intended to purchase.

Clothing Preferences

While shopping for clothes, you may select an outfit but then get distracted chatting with friends or checking on your phone. If the cashier hands you a slightly different garment, you might not even notice that it isn’t what you originally picked out.

In this scenario, you might fail to notice the substitution and later explain why they chose the received clothing item.

Survey Responses

Participants in surveys or interviews may provide answers that align with social expectations or perceived norms, even if those responses differ from their true preferences. This aligns with choice blindness, where individuals unknowingly offer justifications for choices they did not make.

Product Customization

Imagine that you are customizing a product online where you select specific features, colors, or options. However, the final product may differ due to technical glitches or user interface issues.

Choice blindness might make you unaware of the discrepancy when receiving the product, and you might even try to find ways to rationalize your choices during post-purchase questioning.

Political Preferences

In politics, individuals might express support for a particular policy or candidate but fail to notice changes to their stated preferences. This could happen in surveys or discussions where external influences subtly alter their responses. This means that their stated choices and actual preferences don’t align.

How to Overcome Choice Blindness

Overcoming choice blindness involves developing awareness, critical thinking, and mindfulness in decision-making processes. Here are some strategies that individuals can use to help reduce the effects of choice blindness:

Slow Down and Reflect

Take the time to slow down and reflect on your choices. Avoid making decisions hastily, especially in situations where distractions are present. Creating a mental pause before confirming a choice allows for better self-awareness and reduces the likelihood of overlooking discrepancies.

Increased Attention to Details

Pay close attention to the details of your choices and the outcomes. Be vigilant in observing visual or sensory differences between the selected option and the received item. Training yourself to notice subtleties can enhance your ability to catch inconsistencies.

Double-Check Choices

Develop a habit of double-checking your choices, especially when misdirection or distractions are likely. Verifying your decisions before moving forward can help ensure that your perceived choices align with your actual intentions.

Mindful Decision-Making

Practice mindful decision-making by being fully present in the moment when making choices. Minimize external distractions and focus on the task at hand.

Mindfulness enhances your awareness of the decision-making process, reducing the chances of falling victim to choice blindness.

Question Your Choices

Regularly question and examine your choices, motivations, and preferences. By engaging in self-reflection, you can identify potential biases, social influences, or cognitive factors that may impact your decisions. Actively challenging your own thought processes contributes to greater self-awareness.

Seek Feedback from Others

When possible, seek feedback from others about your choices. External perspectives can provide valuable insights and highlight potential discrepancies. Discussing decisions with friends, colleagues, or mentors adds an external layer of awareness to your choices.

Educate Yourself on Cognitive Biases

Familiarize yourself with common cognitive biases that influence decision-making. Understanding biases such as confirmation bias or choice-supportive bias can empower you to recognize and counteract their effects on your perceptions of choices.

Keep a Decision-Making Journal

Maintain a journal where you record your decisions, reasons for making them, and the outcomes. Periodically reviewing this journal allows you to track patterns, identify any discrepancies, and gain a deeper understanding of your decision-making tendencies.

By incorporating these strategies into their decision-making processes, you can enhance your ability to recognize and overcome choice blindness.

Key Points to Remember

  • Choice blindness refers to the phenomenon where individuals are unaware of discrepancies between their intended choices and the outcomes they receive.
  • It highlights the subconscious nature of decision-making, influenced by cognitive biases, distractions, and memory distortions.
  • Everyday examples include ordering at a restaurant, online shopping, and expressing preferences in surveys.
  • Strategies to overcome choice blindness include slowing down, paying attention to details, questioning choices, and seeking feedback from others.


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Johansson, P., Hall, L., Sikström, S., & Olsson, A. (2005). Failure to detect mismatches between intention and outcome in a simple decision task. Science, 310(5745), 116–119.

Lachaud, L., Jacquet, B., & Baratgin, J. (2022). Reducing Choice-Blindness? An Experimental Study Comparing Experienced Meditators to Non-Meditators. European journal of investigation in health, psychology and education, 12(11), 1607–1620.

Sagana, A., Sauerland, M., & Merckelbach, H. (2018). Warnings to Counter Choice Blindness for Identification Decisions: Warnings Offer an Advantage in Time but Not in Rate of Detection. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 981.

Sagana, A., Sauerland, M., & Merckelbach, H. (2014). Memory impairment is not sufficient for choice blindness to occur. Frontiers in psychology, 5, 449.

Rieznik, A., Moscovich, L., Frieiro, A., Figini, J., Catalano, R., Garrido, J. M., Álvarez Heduan, F., Sigman, M., & Gonzalez, P. A. (2017). A massive experiment on choice blindness in political decisions: Confidence, confabulation, and unconscious detection of self-deception. PloS one, 12(2), e0171108.