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5 Common Leadership Styles and How to Find Yours

5 Common Leadership Styles and How to Find Yours

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Leadership styles can be defined as a person’s governing, directing, and motivating followers. Researchers have proposed several different leadership styles over the last 50 or so years. Leaders often see such styles in business, politics, technology, and other major fields.

Psychologists have found that leadership styles can have a meaningful impact on how well groups function. Leaders also help determine how successful the group is at achieving its goals and how motivated and committed followers are to the group and its goals.

Let’s take a closer look at some of the major leadership styles identified by different researchers.

Autocratic Leadership Styles

Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian or dictatorial leadership, involves the leader having full control and not accepting input from others.

This leadership style is characterized by:

  • Close supervision
  • Lack of input from followers
  • Complete control
  • Total authority
  • Solo decision-making

Psychologist Kurt Lewin first described the authoritarian style in a study that identified three key leadership styles. People with an authoritarian leadership style make decisions without consulting anyone else on the team.

This leadership style can be problematic when overused because it can come off as domineering and tyrannical. Team members may feel unappreciated, unmotivated, and uncommitted to the group because their input is never requested.

When Are Authoritarian Styles Helpful?

Are there situations where authoritarian leadership can be beneficial? One of the advantages of authoritarian leadership is that it leads to quick decision-making. This can be critical in situations where decisions need to be made quickly and under a lot of pressure.

It can also be a good choice when the leader is the most knowledgeable and skilled person in the group.

Democratic Leadership Styles

Democratic leadership, or participative leadership, was another one of Lewin’s three leadership styles.

This leadership style is characterized by:

  • Shared decision-making responsibilities
  • Social equality
  • Creativity
  • High engagement from group members

Leaders who exhibit this style are often described as honest, fair, creative, intelligent, and competent. This leadership style can lead to a great deal of commitment from group members because they typically feel more input in the group’s success and failure.

It is important to remember that while democratic leaders accept and encourage team members to offer their ideas and contributions, the leader does retain the final say over all decisions.

When Are Democratic Leadership Styles Best?

The democratic leadership style is often identified as one of the “best” approaches to leading groups, but it is not necessarily appropriate for every situation. Some situations where the democratic style may be inappropriate include those where the group members are untrained or where decisions must be made on a tight deadline.

Laissez-Faire Leadership Styles

The laissez-faire style was another of the three styles observed and described by Lewin and his colleagues.

This style is characterized by:

  • Little direction from the leader
  • Lots of freedom for group members
  • Team members are responsible for making all decisions
  • A great deal of autonomy

Laissez-faire leaders are sometimes referred to as delegative leaders. Rather than attempt to direct and control the group, they hand over the responsibility of leading the group to the team members themselves.

The laissez-faire style can have advantages and disadvantages, depending upon the characteristics of the situation and the group. When the group members are highly skilled and knowledgeable, letting them guide themselves can be a great strategy. In such cases, the leader can still offer support and advice when needed, but followers are mostly able to make their own choices.

When Is a Laissez-Faire Style a Bad Choice?

This leadership style can be a poor choice in situations that require quick decision-making or where members of the group lack the skills to succeed.

In such cases, team members may feel unsure about what to do. Such situations also lead to a lack of accountability, missed deadlines, and low commitment to the group.

Transactional Leadership Styles

Transactional leadership, also known as managerial leadership, is all about managing others using rewards and punishments. People with this leadership style prefer a great deal of structure with clearly defined roles and expectations.

The transactional leadership style is characterized by:

  • Lots of instruction
  • Clear expectations
  • Clear goals
  • Inflexibility
  • Efficiency
  • Focused on following rules

Transactional leaders usually lay out their rules and expectations. Each group member is given clear directions about what they should be doing, how they should be doing it, and when it should be done. The focus of this style is on making sure that things are completed correctly, on time, and according to the rules.

When Are Transactional Leadership Styles Best?

This can be an effective style within an organizational structure because it is centered on productivity, efficiency, and safety. It can be stifling in settings where workers feel micro-managed.

Because this style is so focused on extrinsic motivations, with rewards and bonuses offered for meeting or exceeding goals, followers may not develop much intrinsic motivation for their work.

Transformational Leadership Styles

Transformational leadership is characterized by high levels of motivation, inspiration, and commitment. People with this leadership style take charge of the group by presenting a clear vision of the outcome, displaying a great deal of passion for the work, and helping group members feel inspired and committed to the goals.

People who have this leadership style are often described as:

  • Energetic
  • Passionate
  • Enthusiastic
  • Trustworthy
  • Creative
  • Intelligent

Transformational leaders are not only highly creative; they also inspire creativity in others. They offer support and guidance to help each member of the team achieve their full potential.

Team members look to the leader as a role model. Because of this, followers tend to internalize the leader’s ideals and strive to emulate these qualities.

Summary

There are many different leadership styles, but the best approach may depend on factors such as the characteristics of the situation and the group. There is no single leadership style that is best in each and every situation. In some cases, an authoritarian style may be more effective and productive. In other situations, a transformational leader may excel.

Find Your Leadership Style

Learn more about your own leadership tendencies by taking our leadership style quiz:

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Who makes the decisions in your group?

How much input do you accept from your followers?

How much direction do you give to subordinates?

How do you respond to mistakes by members of your team?

How often do you check in with members of your team?

What do you do to motivate your team?

What's the most important goal for your group?

How do you define a successful team?

Leadership Style Quiz: What's Your Leadership Style?
Transformer
Your results suggest that you tend to have a transformational leadership style. The people in your group look to you to serve as an example, and you are happy to oblige. You offer motivation, guidance, and inspiration that lead your team members to feel passionate and committed to the cause.
Manager
Your results suggest that you tend to have a managerial leadership style. You're all about having a plan and sticking with it. You expect people on your team to follow the rules, accept direction, and get things done on a schedule. On the plus side, your team gets things done efficiently and on time. Sometimes, people on your team might be left feeling micromanaged, which can lead to dissatisfaction and low commitment.
Dictator
Your results suggest that you tend to have an authoritarian leadership style. You have the final say over all decisions and you rarely, if ever, accept any input from the members of your team. This can work well in situations where you are the most knowledgeable person or when time is of the essence. When overused, this style can crush creativity and lead to high turnover.
Participator
Your results suggest that you tend to have a democratic leadership style. While you still retain the final say over decisions in your group, you are good at letting members of your group have a say and contribute their expertise. On the plus side, the people on your team feel engaged in the process and committed to the group's goals. Problems can emerge, however, if your followers are not sure of their roles.
Delegator
Your results suggest that you tend to have a laissez-faire approach to leadership. This style of leadership generally results in the poorest outcomes, although it can be appropriate in certain situations. Because of the lack of direction, group members may feel uninvolved and unsure of what they are supposed to be doing. In cases where group members are themselves experts, it can be a good choice and allow these highly skilled team members to have their autonomy while expressing their creativity.

Share your Results:

Sources:

Bass BM. Leadership and Performance, N.Y. Free Press; 1985.

Bass BM. Riggio RE. Transformational Leadership. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc; 2008.

Schyns B , Hansbrough T. When Leadership Goes Wrong: Destructive Leadership, Mistakes, and Ethical Failures. Charlotte: NC; 2010.

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