Negative reinforcement is a behavioral psychology concept that involves the removal of an unpleasant stimulus after a desired behavior has been displayed. Simply put, negative reinforcement occurs when the removal of an aversive stimulus strengthens a behavior. For example, if a child is whining and a parent gives in to the child’s demands to make the whining stop, removing the whining is a form of negative reinforcement.
B. F. Skinner first introduced the concept as part of his theory of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning suggests that learning occurs through reinforcement and punishment.
Negative reinforcement is sometimes confused with punishment. Punishment involves the presentation of an aversive stimulus after an undesired behavior. However, while punishment aims to decrease a behavior, negative reinforcement is intended to increase a behavior. In other words, negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by removing something unpleasant, while punishment weakens a behavior by adding something unpleasant.
Table of Contents
Examples of Negative Reinforcement
Some examples of negative reinforcement in everyday situations include the following:
- A student completes their homework promptly to avoid the nagging of their parents. The removal of the nagging is a negative reinforcement that strengthens the behavior of completing homework on time.
- An office worker works diligently to complete a project before the deadline to avoid the stress and anxiety of rushing to finish it at the last minute. Removing the sources of stress and anxiety is a negative reinforcement that strengthens the behavior of working diligently.
- A dog stops barking when the owner gives it a treat. The removal of the aversive stimulus (the barking) is a negative reinforcement that strengthens the behavior of being quiet.
- A person takes a pain reliever to alleviate the discomfort of a headache. Removing the pain is a negative reinforcement that strengthens the behavior of taking a pain reliever when experiencing a headache.
- A child puts on their seatbelt to stop the annoying beeping sound the car makes when it is not fastened. Removing the beeping sound is a negative reinforcement that strengthens the behavior of putting on the seatbelt.
Negative Reinforcement vs. Positive Reinforcement
Despite sharing some similarities, negative and positive reinforcement are two distinct concepts in psychology. Both types of reinforcement strengthen behavior by increasing the likelihood of it being repeated in the future, but they differ in how they achieve this outcome.
Positive reinforcement involves the addition of a desirable stimulus or reward following a desired behavior, which increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur in the future. For instance, when students receive praise and recognition for getting good grades, they are likely to continue to work hard in school to experience the positive reinforcement of praise and recognition.
Negative reinforcement, on the other hand, involves the removal of an unpleasant or aversive stimulus following a desired behavior, making that behavior more likely to occur in the future. For example, when a person takes aspirin to relieve the discomfort of a headache, they are more likely to take aspirin in the future when experiencing a headache.
The main difference between the two reinforcement types is the nature of the stimulus that follows the behavior. Positive reinforcement adds something desirable, while negative reinforcement removes something aversive. Positive reinforcement is often associated with rewards or praise, whereas negative reinforcement is often associated with the avoidance of something unpleasant.
Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by adding a desirable stimulus, while negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus.
Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment
While both negative reinforcement and punishment involve applying or removing a stimulus, they are fundamentally different concepts in psychology.
Negative reinforcement is the removal of an unpleasant stimulus or aversive consequence following a desired behavior, which increases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated in the future. For example, a child might stop whining when their parent gives in to their demands, which removes the aversive stimulus of the whining and reinforces the behavior of making demands.
Punishment, on the other hand, involves the application of an unpleasant stimulus or aversive consequence following an undesired behavior, which decreases the likelihood of that behavior being repeated in the future. For example, if a child is scolded for misbehaving, the scolding serves as a punishment that discourages the child from misbehaving again in the future.
The key difference between negative reinforcement and punishment is that negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus, while punishment weakens behavior by adding an aversive stimulus. Negative reinforcement is used to encourage the desired behavior, while punishment is used to discourage undesired behavior.
Another critical difference is that negative reinforcement may involve removing something unpleasant, but it is still a form of reinforcement in that it increases the likelihood of repeated behavior. On the other hand, punishment aims to decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated by adding an unpleasant consequence.
Negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by removing an aversive stimulus, while punishment weakens behavior by adding an aversive stimulus. Negative reinforcement encourages desired behavior, while punishment discourages undesired behavior.
How Is Negative Reinforcement Used?
Negative reinforcement can be used in a variety of ways to encourage desired behavior. Here are some examples:
In the classroom: Teachers can use negative reinforcement to encourage students to complete their work on time by removing the unpleasant consequence of a failing grade or detention. For instance, a teacher might give students an extension on a project if they have worked hard and progressed well.
- In the workplace: Employers can use negative reinforcement to encourage employees to meet deadlines or work more efficiently by removing the unpleasant consequence of a reprimand or disciplinary action. For example, a manager might offer a bonus to employees who complete a project ahead of schedule.
- In therapy: Therapists can use negative reinforcement to help clients overcome phobias or anxiety by gradually removing the aversive stimulus of exposure to the feared object or situation. For instance, a therapist might gradually expose a client with a fear of flying to the experience of being on an airplane, while also offering reassurance and support.
- In parenting: Parents can use negative reinforcement to encourage their children to behave appropriately by removing the unpleasant consequence of a time-out or loss of privileges. For example, a parent might allow a child to watch TV after they have finished their homework or chores.
In each of these examples, negative reinforcement encourages desired behavior by removing an aversive stimulus or consequence. By doing so, negative reinforcement can be a powerful tool for promoting positive behavior in a variety of settings. However, it is important to use negative reinforcement in a balanced and ethical way, taking care not to overuse it or create unintended negative consequences.
Possible Drawbacks of Negative Reinforcement
While negative reinforcement can be an effective tool for encouraging desired behavior, there are also some potential drawbacks. Here are some examples:
- Unintended consequences: If negative reinforcement is used too frequently or inappropriately, it can have unintended consequences. For example, if a parent uses negative reinforcement too often, a child may become dependent on removing an unpleasant consequence to motivate them, rather than developing internal motivation.
- Emotional impact: Negative reinforcement can also have a negative emotional impact, especially if the aversive stimulus or consequence is severe. This can lead to feelings of anxiety, stress, and low self-esteem.
- Ethical considerations: Negative reinforcement can raise ethical concerns, particularly if it involves the use of physical or emotional punishment. Such punishment may be seen as abusive or harmful, and can create long-term psychological damage.
- Overuse: If negative reinforcement is used too often or excessively, it can become less effective over time. This is because the individual may become desensitized to the aversive stimulus or consequence and may begin to feel like they are being manipulated or controlled.
- Risk of alternative behaviors: Negative reinforcement can also inadvertently reinforce alternative behaviors that are not desired. For example, if a child is rewarded for completing their homework quickly, they may rush through their work, sacrificing quality for speed.
It is important to use negative reinforcement judiciously and ethically, taking into account the potential drawbacks and considering alternative behavior management methods when appropriate. By doing so, negative reinforcement can be a valuable tool for promoting positive behavior and achieving desired outcomes.
Key Terms to Know
Here are some key terms and definitions related to negative reinforcement:
- Negative reinforcement: A type of operant conditioning in which the removal of an aversive stimulus increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future.
- Aversive stimulus: Any stimulus that an individual finds unpleasant, uncomfortable, or undesirable, such as pain, fear, or discomfort.
- Escape behavior: A behavior that is performed to terminate or escape from an aversive stimulus.
- Avoidance behavior: A behavior that is performed to prevent or avoid the onset of an aversive stimulus.
- Punishment: A type of operant conditioning in which presenting an aversive stimulus decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future.
- Positive reinforcement: A type of operant conditioning in which the presentation of a desirable stimulus increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future.
- Extinction: The gradual decrease in the frequency or strength of a behavior that occurs when it is no longer followed by reinforcement.
Understanding these key terms can help to clarify the concepts and principles of negative reinforcement, and facilitate their application in various settings, such as education, parenting, and therapy.
Study Questions About Negative Reinforcement
If you are a psychology student, it can be helpful to answer some study questions about negative reinforcement to ensure that you understand the topic. Here are some study questions for students who are learning about negative reinforcement:
- What is negative reinforcement, and how does it differ from positive reinforcement and punishment?
- What are some examples of negative reinforcement in daily life, and how do they influence behavior?
- How does negative reinforcement work in the context of operant conditioning, and what are some basic principles of this type of learning?
- How can negative reinforcement be used effectively in teaching and learning, and what are some potential drawbacks or ethical considerations to keep in mind?
- What is the difference between escape behavior and avoidance behavior, and how do they relate to negative reinforcement?
- How can negative reinforcement be applied in the context of therapy or behavior modification, and what are some best practices for using this technique in clinical settings?
- What is extinction, and how does it relate to negative reinforcement? How can the principles of extinction be applied in practice to modify behavior?
- How do cognitive factors, such as beliefs and attitudes, affect the efficacy of negative reinforcement? What are some ways to address these factors in order to enhance the effectiveness of this technique?
- What are some ethical considerations to keep in mind when using negative reinforcement, and how can these be addressed in practice?
- What alternative strategies to negative reinforcement can be used to modify behavior, and how do they differ from this technique in terms of their theoretical foundations and practical applications?
Negative reinforcement is a type of operant conditioning in which the removal of an aversive stimulus increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated in the future. This type of reinforcement works by reducing or eliminating an unpleasant or undesirable experience, reinforcing the behavior that led to its removal.
Negative reinforcement has potential drawbacks, including unintended consequences, emotional impact, ethical concerns, overuse, and risk of alternative behaviors. It is important to use negative reinforcement carefully and consider alternative behavior management methods when appropriate. By doing so, negative reinforcement can be a valuable tool for promoting positive behavior and achieving desired outcomes.
American Psychological Association. Negative reinforcement.
Edwards TL, Poling A. Motivating Operations and Negative Reinforcement. Perspect Behav Sci. 2020;43(4):761-778. Published 2020 Aug 18. doi:10.1007/s40614-020-00266-8
Sidman M. The distinction between positive and negative reinforcement: some additional considerations. Behav Anal. 2006;29(1):135-139. doi:10.1007/BF03392126
Baron A, Galizio M. The distinction between positive and negative reinforcement: use with care. Behav Anal. 2006;29(1):141-151. doi:10.1007/BF03392127