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What Is the Primacy Effect in Psychology?

The primacy effect is a cognitive phenomenon in which people tend to remember and give more importance to the initial information presented in a series of items, whether it be a list of words, a sequence of events, or other forms of communication. 

This effect suggests that information presented at the beginning of a series has a greater impact on memory and overall perception than information presented later.

What Causes the Primacy Effect?

Several factors contribute to the primacy effect, including the time available for processing information, the opportunity for rehearsal, and the tendency for early information to create a lasting impression. 

When people encounter a series of items, the items presented first are more likely to be encoded into long-term memory, making them more easily retrievable.

How the Brain Processes Information

The primacy effect is driven by how our brains process information. When we encounter a series of items, the information needs to be encoded and initially stored in working memory before it can potentially move to long-term memory. 

The items presented early in the sequence get more attention and rehearsal, enhancing their chances of being remembered—this rehearsal process is a key contributor to the primacy effect.

Limited Attention and Processing Resources

Our cognitive resources are also limited. When we encounter a series of stimuli, the initial items get a larger share of our attention and processing capacity. 

This limited attention means that the first items have a better chance of being thoroughly processed and remembered, while later items may receive less cognitive investment, contributing to the primacy effect.


Rehearsal, or mentally repeating information, is a key factor in the primacy effect. Early items in a sequence offer more chances for rehearsal than later ones. This increased rehearsal strengthens the encoding process, making the information more likely to be retained in long-term memory.

More rehearsal for those initial items means they are more memorable.  

Factors That Impact the Primacy Effect

Several factors can influence the primacy effect, either enhancing or diminishing its impact. Here are some key factors:

Time and Rate

The primacy effect is stronger the longer you are exposed to those first items of information. The rate at which the information is presented also plays a role.

If it is presented rapidly, there may be less time for processing and rehearsal, potentially reducing the primacy effect.

Chances for Rehearsal

The more time you have to rehearse the information, the stronger the primacy effect will be. However, the primacy effect can be weakened if you encounter many distractions or engage in tasks that limit your ability to rehearse. 

Cognitive Load

High cognitive load, such as processing complex information or performing concurrent mental tasks, may reduce the strength of the primacy effect.

Serial Position Effect

The primacy effect is part of the serial position effect, which describes the tendency to remember items presented at the beginning and end of a list more effectively than those in the middle. 

The recency effect is the counterpart to the primacy effect. It involves being able to remember items at the end of a list better than items in the middle.

Task Instructions

Explicit instructions to remember information may enhance primacy as individuals consciously focus on encoding the initial items.

Individual Differences

Cognitive abilities and individual differences in memory capacity can influence the strength of the primacy effect. For example, individuals with better memory skills may exhibit a more pronounced primacy effect.

Emotional Impact

Emotionally charged or salient information presented at the beginning is more likely to be remembered. Emotional content can enhance memory retention.

List Length

The length of the list or sequence of items can impact the primacy effect. In shorter lists, the effect may be more pronounced, while longer lists may diminish the effect.


The time delay between the presentation of the initial information and subsequent items can affect the primacy effect. Longer delays may reduce the effect.


The context in which information is presented can influence the primacy effect. For instance, if there is a change in context during the presentation, it may reset the primacy effect.

Examples of the Primacy Effect in Action

To illustrate how the primacy effect works, looking at a few examples you’ve probably experienced before in your life can be helpful.

Remembering a List

If you’ve ever gone to the grocery store with a list of items to buy, you’ve probably noticed that it’s easier to recall the first few items from your list.

Giving a Speech

In a public speech or presentation, the speaker’s opening statements often set the tone for the entire talk. If the introduction is engaging, memorable, or impactful, it can create a lasting impression that shapes the audience’s overall perception of the speaker and the message.


Advertisers often leverage the primacy effect by placing key selling points or brand messages at the beginning of a commercial or advertisement. This ensures that viewers are more likely to remember the primary benefits or features of the product.

Learning and Education

In a classroom setting, if a teacher introduces a new topic with an attention-grabbing activity or provides a clear and memorable overview at the beginning of the lesson, students are more likely to retain and recall that information.

First Impressions in Social Settings

When meeting new people, the initial information exchanged or observed about someone, such as their appearance, demeanor, or first few words, can have a lasting impact on how others perceive and remember them.

What Are the Effects of the Primacy Effect?

The primacy effect is crucial in various contexts, and its significance can be explained in several ways:

  • First impressions: The primacy effect often influences the way people form impressions about others. Initial interactions and information play a significant role in shaping perceptions and attitudes.
  • Formation of memories: Understanding the primacy effect is essential in educational settings. Teachers, presenters, and communicators can use this knowledge to structure information to maximize retention and learning.
  • Decision-making: In decision-making processes, the primacy effect can influence judgments and choices. The information presented early in a decision-making process may disproportionately impact the final decision.
  • Marketing and advertising: Advertisers and marketers often leverage the primacy effect by placing key messages or product features at the beginning of an advertisement. You might be more heavily swayed by the initial messages you encounter.
  • Legal proceedings: The primacy effect can affect juror perceptions in legal contexts. The way evidence is presented during a trial, emphasizing the order of information, can influence the overall interpretation of the case.

Primacy Effect vs. the Anchoring Bias

The primacy effect and anchoring bias are distinct cognitive phenomena, each involving the influence of early information on cognitive processes, but they operate in different ways. 

The primacy effect is the tendency to give more significance to the initial information in a series, particularly when presented in a sequence. It is closely tied to memory, as the first information encountered is more likely to be encoded into long-term memory, influencing overall perception. The primacy effect is often observed when individuals encounter a series of stimuli, such as lists, presentations, or sequences of events.

On the other hand, anchoring bias is a type of cognitive bias where individuals rely heavily on the first piece of information encountered (known as the anchor) when making decisions or estimates. Anchoring bias is prevalent in decision-making contexts, affecting how people make judgments and estimates based on the initial reference point. 

Unlike the primacy effect, which is associated with memory and the order of presentation, anchoring bias is more focused on the impact of an initial anchor on subsequent decision processes, such as negotiations or numerical estimations.

Both the primacy effect and anchoring bias involve the influence of early information, the primacy effect is more memory-centric and tied to the order of presentation, whereas anchoring bias is decision-centric and related to the impact of an initial anchor on subsequent judgments and estimations in decision-making scenarios. 

How to Make the Most of the Primacy Effect

You can do things to make the primacy effect work for you. For example, understanding how this effect works can help you improve your communication and memory retention. 

Here are some ways you can use the primacy effect to your advantage:

When You’re Giving a Speech…

Start with a solid and engaging opening. Capture your audience’s attention with a compelling story, relevant statistic, or thought-provoking question. This sets a positive tone and increases the likelihood that your key messages will be remembered.

During a Job Interview…

Make a conscious effort to create a positive first impression. Kick off the interview by highlighting your strengths, accomplishments, and relevant experiences. This initial information can shape the interviewer’s perception of you throughout the interview.

When Teaching Someone Else…

Use the primacy effect to optimize learning experiences. When introducing a new topic, provide a clear and engaging overview at the beginning of the lesson. This helps students build a strong foundation for understanding and retaining key concepts.

When You’re Meeting Someone New…

Be aware of the importance of first impressions. Pay attention to your appearance, body language, and initial conversations; these elements contribute to how others perceive and remember you.

When Learning Something New…

Focus on creating a strong initial association with key concepts. This could involve using mnemonic devices, visual aids, or other memory-enhancing techniques at the beginning of the learning process.

Key Points to Remember

The primacy effect can make it so you remember information you encounter first. Factors such as attention, rehearsal, and cognitive abilities can impact the strength of the primacy effect.

Understanding the cognitive influence of early information can contribute to more effective communication and decision-making in professional settings, educational environments, or personal interactions.


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Griffin, J. W., John, S. E., Adams, J. W., Bussell, C. A., Saurman, J. L., & Gavett, B. E. (2017). The effects of age on the learning and forgetting of primacy, middle, and recency components of a multi-trial word list. Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 39(9), 900–912.

Morrison, A. B., Conway, A. R., & Chein, J. M. (2014). Primacy and recency effects as indices of the focus of attention. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8, 6.

Paul, R., Weiss, D. (2013). Primacy Effects. In: Volkmar, F.R. (eds) Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders. Springer, New York, NY.